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1499: Woodcut from Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
A wildland separated from tamed land on a watershed.

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16th cent: The Black Forest "part of the Hercynian Forest" engraving from Sebastian Munster Cosmography
A semi-natural ecosystem as a human resource.

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1565: Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Dark Day
The countryside as a product of human settlement where wildness is confined to mountains rivers and seas.

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1599: Uten's lunette of Pitti Palace and its Boboli Garden Florence

A garden as a place where plants and animals taken from nature are protected against the uncertainties of wildness.